Rectal temperatures were measured using the Diatek electronic thermometer (Welch Allyn Inc, Skaneateles Falls, NY). Erickson Using the McNemar test, we found the TA thermometer to be significantly more sensitive than the tympanic thermometer for detecting rectal fever (P<.001) and high rectal fever (P = .004). to download free article PDFs, Scanner. For all remaining analyses, all 304 patients were included. Our website uses cookies to enhance your experience. We conclude that the TA thermometer has limited sensitivity for detecting cases of rectal fever in infants. The top critical review on Amazon for the popular Braun Forehead Thermometer claims that the reviewer “took 5 readings within a 30-minute timeframe” and found that the temperatures ranged from 99.1 to 102.1, while the rectal thermometer measured their baby’s actual temperature at 102.4 degrees.  JJ Rectal perforation in infant by thermometer: case report with review of literature on rectal perforation. Infrared tympanic thermometry in the pediatric intensive care unit. Agreement between ta or tympanic and rectal temperatures. The right-sided TA temperature was always the fourth measurement made. Petersen-Smith  AMYoung Linear regression analysis of the relation between TA and rectal temperatures yielded a model with a slope of 0.79 (vs a slope of 0.68 for tympanic vs rectal temperature; The TA thermometer has limited sensitivity for detecting cases of rectal fever in infants. The sensitivity and specificity of TA or tympanic thermometers for detecting rectal fever were determined.  ECranston All Rights Reserved, Challenges in Clinical Electrocardiography, Clinical Implications of Basic Neuroscience, Health Care Economics, Insurance, Payment, Scientific Discovery and the Future of Medicine, United States Preventive Services Task Force, 2001;155(3):376-381. doi:10.1001/archpedi.155.3.376.  C Tympanic membrane temperature as a measure of core temperature. The TemporalScanner is fast, accurate, easy to use, and gentle enough to be used even on a … Yetman Taking a temperature with a light stroke across the forehead, the TemporalScanner provides an innovative method of temperature assessment, based on infrared readings of temporal artery blood flow. Accuracy of a Noninvasive Temporal Artery Thermometer for Use in Infants. What about a very obese patient EXERGEN Straight From the Heart°.Watertown, MA 02472 - 617.923.9900 - www.exergen.com. Accepted for publication October 23, 2000. For the purpose of this analysis, cases in which 1 of the 2 TA measurements was noted to be unreliable were excluded. Thirty-five percent of all cases of rectal fever and 6% of cases of high-grade rectal fever were missed by the TA thermometer. Tympanic thermometers, although popular with patients and parents and fairly reliable in adults,22 have not proven adequate for infants and young children.6,10,12,14,19,36-38 Thus, a continued need exists for a form of thermometry that is as well tolerated as the tympanic technique but gives results that closely agree with rectal temperature. For both the tympanic and TA thermometers, the median discomfort score was 2, with a range of 1 to 5. Frank Why is it more accurate than ear temperature?A major reason ear thermometers are considered inaccurate by medical professionals is because the positioning of the probe in the ear canal is inconsistent, thus creating inconsistent readings and frequently missing fevers.  FMackenzie Conclusions  Prospective evaluation of the accuracy of TA and tympanic thermometry, using rectal thermometry as the criterion standard. The TA thermometer is a handheld device that is operated by placing its probe on the patient's forehead and then sweeping it laterally until the hairline of the temporal scalp is reached.  TEMilewski For instance, if antipyretics had been given several minutes before the temperatures were measured, the TA temperature might accurately reflect a lowered core body temperature, while the rectal temperature still reflects the preceding fever. EXERGEN TemporalScanner™ Temporal Artery Thermometer is available at: *SPECIAL PROMOTIONAL ANNOUNCEMENT!!!!!!!! Terndrup Hooker  DSchaalje  SSchaalje Convenience sample of 304 infants younger than 1 year presenting for care.  EA Use of tympanic thermometers to screen for fever in patients in a pediatric emergency department.  AJ Temperature measurement in critically ill orally intubated adults: a comparison of pulmonary artery core, tympanic, and oral methods. In a study of 16 adults admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), Stavem et al43 reported better agreement between rectal and PA temperatures than between tympanic and PA temperatures. Three good reasons for hospital wide use . EXERGEN Corporation• 400 Pleasant Street • Watertown,MA 02472 • Tel: 617.923.9900• Fax: 617.923.991 • www.exergen.com. The TA thermometer is significantly more sensitive than the tympanic thermometer for the detection of rectal fever in infants. In a study of 20 patients in a pediatric ICU, Romano et al52 found that rectal thermometry had less bias and variability than tympanic or axillary thermometers in predicting PA temperature. It is the best determinate of body temperature.  LMClemence  KPeterson 2001;155(3):376–381.  N Axillary vs. rectal temperatures in ambulatory and hospitalized children. Even in this study, however, there was less variability in the difference between rectal and PA temperatures than in the difference between tympanic and PA temperatures.46 Given these reports, we believe that rectal thermometry is an appropriate criterion standard for noninvasive clinical thermometry. 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Exergen markets two models of the TemporalScanner thermometer: a professional version for doctors' offices and hospitals, and a consumer model sold in major retailers nationwide. The tympanic thermometer was associated with significantly lower discomfort scores than the rectal thermometer (P<.001). Giuliano  BLWaisman The sensitivity and specificity for the non-contact thermometer is 97%. All Rights Reserved.  BHenker It is much deeper and less accurately measured. From the Division of Emergency Medicine, Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass.  RSheth To assess the accuracy of a new noninvasive temporal artery (TA) thermometer in infants; to compare the accuracy of the TA thermometer with that of a tympanic thermometer, using rectal thermometry as the criterion standard; and to compare the tolerability of the TA thermometer with that of the tympanic and rectal thermometers. During these shifts, the research assistants attempted to enroll all eligible patients.  DKWest Bernardo  JMGrandner  PHThornton The sensitivity and specificity of tympanic and TA thermometers for detecting temperatures of 38°C or higher in cases of rectal fever were calculated. Only Rotello et al,46 in a study of 20 adult patients in an ICU, found a closer agreement between tympanic temperature and PA temperature than between rectal and PA temperatures.  CJHewson EXERGEN.  SGiuliano Nierman  Y Comparison of tympanic, esophageal and blood temperatures during mild hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass: a study using an infrared emission detection tympanic thermometer.  M Accuracy of tympanic temperature readings in children under 6 years of age. What does the TemporalScanner™ measure?With a gentle stroke of the forehead it captures the naturally emitted heat from the skin over the temporal artery, taking 1,000 readings per second, selecting the most accurate. The committee required that verbal consent be obtained from the parents of study subjects. All temperatures were measured by trained research assistants. The Medical Ear Thermometer with Forehead Function is a consistent and reliable thermometer that’s primarily used for the ear. The accuracy is unbeatable, it’s a …  M Comparison of temperature measurements by an aural infrared thermometer with measurements by traditional rectal and axillary techniques.  MVBrengelmann Temporal artery temperature is not affected by the things that cause oral and underarm temperatures to be misleading.  M Epidemiological study of hospital-acquired infection with vancomycin-resistant. Scatterplot of rectal vs temporal artery (TA) temperatures. Brennan  DMWalker Discomfort scores for each of the 3 methods were compared with one another using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Linear regression analysis was performed and correlation coefficients were calculated for the relation between TA and rectal temperature and for the relation between tympanic and rectal temperature.  NFalk Childs  GL Effect of facial cooling on tympanic temperature.  LTerndrup Invented, designed, assembled, tested, & packaged in the USA by Exergen Corporation. To evaluate the accuracy of TA and tympanic thermometry, rectal temperature was considered the criterion standard.  HSmith-Erichsen Read honest … Slide the thermometer in a reasonably straight line across the forehead, midway between the eyebrows and the upper hairline.  Do not slide down the side of the face. Scatterplot of rectal vs tympanic temperatures.  KASavage Comparison of the correlation coefficients from the 2 models using the Fischer z transform showed significantly closer correlation between TA and rectal temperature than between tympanic and rectal temperature (P = .006). The specificities of the TA and tympanic thermometers in patients with no rectal fever are shown in Table 2. One limitation of our study is that we do not have a true measure of core body temperature to use as a criterion standard. It then can calculate any heat loss (in a normal or cold room) or gain (in a hot room), and instantly computes an accurate body temperature. Among 109 patients with a rectal temperature of 38°C or higher, the TA thermometer had a sensitivity of 0.66 compared with the tympanic thermometer's sensitivity of 0.49 (P<.001).  NBaird Both slopes were significantly different from 1 (P<.001), indicating that neither tympanic nor TA temperature was equivalent to rectal temperature.  STaylor  TE Comparison of infrared ear thermometer derived and equilibrated rectal temperatures in estimating pulmonary artery temperatures.  CEPinchak Barber  BLoos  et al.  AStoica  JSnell This thermometer is great for all ages, taking away the hassle and discomfort that comes with under-the-tongue or in-the-ear thermometers. Multiple temperatures taken over the same area in rapid succession will ultimately cool the area causing differences. However, a few things to know: I heard the thermometer is sensitive to ambient temperature, is it?Yes, it is sensitive to ambient temperature, which is part of the reason it is so accurate.  KKScott  KSaxholm Thomas In a study of 9 adult patients in an ICU, Milewski et al54 found a better correlation between rectal and PA temperature than between tympanic and PA temperature. Muma et al12 reported that tympanic thermometers had a sensitivity of 0.55 for detecting fever in 87 children younger than 3 years. This study was funded by a grant from the Exergen Corporation. Setting  In doing this analysis, left-sided TA temperature was used as the representative TA temperature. Schmitz  R Studies during open-heart surgery on the special characteristics of rectal temperature. However, the TA thermometer is more accurate than the tympanic thermometer in infants, and it is better tolerated by infants than rectal thermometry.  LJBass Tympanic temperature was 37.1°C ± 0.9°C, with a range of 35.0°C to 39.9°C.  P A comparison of aural and rectal temperature measurements in children with moderate and severe injuries. Exergen TemporalScanners are relied upon daily in thousands of hospitals and clinics, taking over a billion fast, accurate, non-invasive temperatures per year.  SSElliot When comparisons showed no significant differences between the 2 thermometry methods, post hoc power calculations were performed. For clinicians who choose not to use rectal thermometry for infants, the TA thermometer appears to be a better alternative than the tympanic thermometer. Harasawa Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Program for the Social Sciences, version 6.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Ill), and the Stata statistical package for Windows (Stata Inc, College Station, Tex).  S Thermometers and rectal perforations in the neonate.  AJCole Both TA temperature and tympanic temperature were assessed for their ability to predict rectal temperature. Among the remaining 260 patients, the mean ± SD left-right difference was 0°C ± 0.39°C, with a range of –1.3°C to 1.0°C. Intended Use: The Exergen TemporalScanner is a handheld infrared thermometer used by medical professionals for the intermittent measurement of human body temperature of people of all ages, by scanning the forehead skin over the temporal artery. Some early studies55,56 of the physiology of human body temperature suggested a lag between instantaneous changes in core body temperature and more delayed changes in rectal temperature. Left- and right-sided TA temperatures were measured using the Exergen TempScan Temporal Artery Thermometer (model LXTA) (Exergen Corp, Watertown, Mass). The order of the other 3 measurements was dictated by a preprinted data collection form. Ficarra It is much deeper and less accurately measured. Similarly, Schmitz et al47 reported that rectal temperatures were a better predictor of PA temperatures than were oral, tympanic, or axillary temperatures in 13 adult patients in an ICU.  ALWerger During the 3-month study period, 304 patients were enrolled, of whom 109 (36%) had rectal fever and 49 (16%) had high rectal fever. Using the McNemar test, we found no significant difference between the specificity of the tympanic and TA thermometers (P = .07). will prevent the heat from dissipating, and would cause the reading to be falsely high. Another limitation of our study is that we included only infants in our sample. Emergency department of an urban pediatric hospital. The TemporalScanner has been proven more accurate than ear thermometers by a Harvard Medical School study. But, as long as the thermometer is in approximately the same ambient temperature as the individual whose temperature is being taken, you don't have to be concerned. Beckstrand  JF Comparison of esophageal, tympanic, and forehead skin temperatures in adult patients. Children were eligible for inclusion in the study if they were younger than 1 year. Rotello Design  Conditions that appeared to the research assistants to make a measurement unreliable (eg, patient's forehead buried in parent's chest, making TA temperature potentially unreliable) were recorded.  RJCoody Artery thermometer scans the forehead area, the exergen temporal artery thermometer accuracy whose temperature is being taken does not reliably predict rectal measurements. 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