Mortality data differences between the municipalities in this study do not appear to result from systematic differences in recording and codification. There was a significant protective dose–response effect of drinking water magnesium levels on the risk of death from hypertension (χ2 for trend = 29.05, P < .001). View More Articles Provided by Andrea Rosanoff here. Data collected included the mean levels of calcium and magnesium for the year 1990. Magnesium intake from drinking water was significantly inversely associated with hypertension death risk in a model controlling for age and gender. The municipality of residence for all cases and controls was identified from the death certificate and was assumed to be the source of the subject's calcium and magnesium exposure via drinking water. In the multivariate model, the inverse association was somewhat stronger. Universal drinking water and beverages containing moderate to high levels of magnesium (10–100 ppm) could potentially prevent 4.5 million heart disease and stroke deaths per year, worldwide. 14 pages. Low mineral intake is associated with high systolic blood pressure in the Third and Fourth National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys: Could we all be right? Mandibular-related bone metabolism in orchiectomized rats treated with sex hormones. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for the highest versus lowest quintiles of exposure was 0.63 (0.47 to 0.84). The mechanism for the blood pressure lowering effect of magnesium involves the fact that a lack of magnesium leads to a decrease in the concentration of intracellular potassium and an increase in calcium levels,37 which increases the contractility of blood vessels, as has been shown in animal experiments.38. No municipalities were excluded because of changes in water quality (eg, the use of water softeners) during the past few decades. A meta-analysis of published trials, Alcohol and hypertension: new insights from population studies, Characteristics of urbanization levels in Taiwan districts. Taichung, Taiwan Water Supply Corporation, Relationship between water hardness and coronary mortality in Taiwan, Statistical Methods in Cancer Research: The Analysis of Case-Control Studies, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Uses of ecologic analysis in epidemiological research, Misclassification and the design of environmental studies, The effect of migration on comparison of disease rates in geographic studies in the United States, Changes in the mineral composition of food as a result of cooking in hard and soft waters, Possible role of water structure in biological magnesium systems, Dahl's hypothesis that a saluretic substance may be responsible for a sustained rise in arterial pressure: its possible role in essential hypertension, Clinical correlates of the molecular and cellular actions of magnesium on the cardiovascular system, Magnesium deficiency and hypertension-correlation between magnesium deficient diets and microcirculatory changes in situ, Observational studies of salt and blood pressure, An overview of randomized trials of sodium reduction and blood pressure, Does potassium supplementation lower blood pressure? Copyright © 2021 American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd. The inferences of causality from this ecologic study are potentially subject to “ecological fallacy” (a logical flaw from making a causal inference about an individual phenomenon on the basis of group observation.” Future studies should increase the precision of the estimation of the individual's intake of calcium and magnesium, both via food and water, and control for confounding factors, especially sodium and potassium from dietary intake and alcohol consumption. They are the units that will be subjected to statistical analysis. Location: Central California, at 19,000 Del Puerto Canyon Road, Ray Tackaberry, Successor Librarian. Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with "soft water"). How to Treat Magnesium and Iron in Drinking Water. Ray Tackaberry, Successor Librarian It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. This study was partly supported by a grant from the National Science Council, Executive Yuan, Taiwan (NSC-87-2314-B-037-074). : 21.Rubenowitz E, Axelsson G, Rylander R: 35.Theophanides T, Angiboust JF, Polissiou M: 40.Cutler JA, Follmann D, Elliott Pet al. Common symptoms include diarrhea and an upset stomach. Adverse Effects. To go directly to a specific category, click on an item in the list below. This potential is calculated with 2010 global mortality figures combined with a recent quantification of water-magnesium’s inverse association with heart disease and stroke mortality. We believe that this ameliorates the migration problem. The U.S. National Academy of Sciences has estimated that a nation-wide initiative to add calcium and magnesium to soft water might reduce the annual cardiovascular death rate by 150,000 in the United States." 7.McCarron D, Morris C, Holly Jet al. Magnesium links! Note from Paul the Mg Librarian: 4.5 million deaths per annum from Mg-deficient drinking water would be 450,000,000 deaths over the next 100 years. Of the 2336 cases, 1500 were men and 836 were women. Cases had a higher rate (43.6%) of living in metropolitan municipalities than the controls (37.9%) (Table 1). This elimination of unsuitable municipalities left 322 municipalities for analysis. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. There is no evidence of adverse health effects specifically attributable to magnesium in drinking water. As was described earlier, hardness is partially caused by magnesium. Diet has been implicated as one of many factors that can influence blood pressure (BP).6 Dietary calcium is the main source of calcium intake. Nonetheless, in the modern-day world, intake of dietary magnesium is often lower than the recommended dietary amount of 6 mg/kg/day.22 For individuals at the borderline of magnesium deficiency, waterborne magnesium can make an important contribution to their total intake. In addition, iron and manganese bacteria are not known to present a health risk. These can include calcium, magnesium, manganese, and so on. In Taiwan, hypertension is the ninth leading cause of death for men and the seventh for women.1 The age-adjusted mortality rate for hypertension was 12.27 per 100,000 among men and 12.34 among women in 1995. The Yi People study, Magnesium in drinking water and death from acute myocardial infarction, Recommended dietary amounts of magnesium: Mg RDA, Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and risk of death from cerebrovascular disease, Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and risk of death from colon cancer, Calcium, magnesium, and nitrate in drinking water and gastric cancer mortality, Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and risk of death from rectal cancer, The Statistical Data of Water Quality, Taiwan. Age- and gender-adjusted calcium intake from drinking water was inversely associated with hypertension death risk. Also, magnesium competes with calcium for absorption. Drinking water comes with a variety of mineral contaminants. From the 1996 FDA Science Forum. (Dr. Rowe has linked the cardiovascular complications of space flight with magnesium deficits). For a reader-friendly overview of Magnesium, see our consumer fact sheet on Magnesium.. Introduction. Iron and manganese are not health concerns in drinking water. The levels of calcium and magnesium of that municipality were used as an indicator of exposure to those substances for an individual residing in that municipality. Because the laboratory office examines calcium and magnesium levels on a routine basis using standard methods, it was thought that the problem of analytical variability was minimal. Information on the levels of calcium and magnesium in each municipality's treated drinking water supply was obtained from the Water Quality Research Center of the Taiwan Water Supply Corporation27 to whom each waterworks is required to submit drinking water quality data including the levels of calcium and magnesium. ( Dr. Harold D. Foster , " Groundwater and Human Health," Groundwater Resources of British Columbia, Ministry of Environment, Lands, and Parks and Environment Canada, pp 6.1-6.3 (reprint), 1994. Many studies have demonstrated a negative association between blood pressure and calcium and magnesium levels. Universal drinking water and beverages containing moderate to high levels of magnesium (10–100 ppm) could potentially prevent 4.5 million heart disease and stroke deaths per year, worldwide. Tastes great! provides information on the health and organoleptic (color, taste, odor, etc.) supported the hypothesis that extra magnesium and/or calcium in drinking-water can contribute to reduced cardiovascular disease and other health benefits in populations. Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, especially stroke. Not only, calcium and magnesium, but other constituents also affect different health aspects. Chun-Yuh Yang, Hui-Fen Chiu, Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and the risk of death from hypertension, American Journal of Hypertension, Volume 12, Issue 9, September 1999, Pages 894–899, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0895-7061(99)00065-5. Both cases and controls had a mean age of 62.9 years. Taiwan is divided into 361 administrative districts, which will be referred to in this report as municipalities. By Joseph Cotruvo, PhD, President, Joseph Cotruvo & Associates LLC, Washington, DC USA. How Many Lives Did Adobe Springs Save in 2015. In addition to age and gender, the following variables were simultaneously included in the final model: calcium levels in quintiles; magnesium levels in quintiles; urbanization level of residence (rural, urban). DONATIONS/BEQUESTS TO SUPPORT THIS LIBRARY AND FURTHER MAGNESIUM RESEARCH WILL BE GRATEFULLY ACCEPTED. We need to better understand the interrelation of various water and food constituents, as well as individual risk factors, in the pathogenesis of IHD. Because it is mandatory to register death certificates at local household registration offices and as the household registration information is verified annually through a door-to-door survey, the death registration in Taiwan is very complete. Therefore, the decedent's residence, place of birth, and place of death are likely to be listed as the same municipality, although the place of birth information was not available for this data set. Iron and manganese in drinking water are not considered health hazards. Author information: (1)Division of Environmental and Occupational Disease Control, California Department of Health Services, Emeryville, USA. Water systems using groundwater as a source are concerned with water hardness, since as water moves through soil and rock it dissolves small amounts of naturally-occurring minerals and carries them into the groundwater supply.Water is a great solvent for calcium and magnesium, so if the minerals are present in the soil around a water-supply well, hard water may be delivered to homes. since 1992. One-half cup, or 4 ounces, of Magnesium Water yields 90 mg of magnesium; one-cup, 8 ounces, yields 180 mg magnesium. Licensed by the California Department of Health Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Chun-Yuh Yang, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st RD, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan. Fax: (408) 897-3028, The Magnesium Web Site was first uploaded on September 29, 1995. General Magnesium is the eighth most abundant natural element. For each death, detailed demographic information, including gender, year of birth, year of death, cause of death, place of death (municipality), and residential district (municipality) were recorded on computer tapes. A water filtration system can help remove unwanted iron from your water supply and easily remove metallic tastes and odors. A severe deficiency may cause some of the following: numbness or tingling muscle cramps low calcium or potassium levels mood changes an irregular heartbeat seizures Interest concerning the role of calcium and magnesium in human cardiovascular disease was stimulated by ecologic studies that demonstrated an inverse association between water hardness and cardiovascular death rates.2–5 The hardness of drinking water is determined largely by its content of calcium and magnesium. The WHO concluded that the magnesium in drinking water is the mineral in drinking water that’s likely to have the most beneficial effect on heart health. In the analysis, the subjects were divided into quintiles according to the levels of calcium and magnesium in their drinking water. This report examines whether calcium and magnesium in drinking water are protective against hypertension. Magnesium levels in drinking water were inversely related to the risk of death from hypertension. Search for other works by this author on: Department of Pharmacology, Kaohsiung Medical College, Relation between mortality from cardiovascular disease and treated water supplies, On the relationship between water hardness and death rate in cardiovascular disease, Mortality and hardness of local water supplies, Cardiovascular mortality in relation to radioactivity and hardness of local water supplies in the USA, Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk, Blood pressure and nutrient intake in the United States, Clinical and biochemical indicators of cardiovascular disease among men living in hard and soft water areas, Dairy products, calcium and blood pressure, Dietary alcohol, calcium, and potassium: independent and combined effects on blood pressure, Calcium intake and the relationship of dietary sodium and potassium to blood pressure, Dietary calcium and blood pressure in experimental models of hypertension: a review, Magnesium and blood pressure: review of the epidemiologic and clinical trial experience, A prospective study of nutritional factors and hypertension among U.S. women, Associations of serum and dietary magnesium with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, insulin, and carotid arterial wall thickness: the ARIC Study, Relationship of dietary sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium with blood pressure, Relationship of magnesium intake and other dietary factors to blood pressure: the Honolulu Heart Study, Relation of electrolytes to blood pressure in men. The groups with different levels of calcium water filtration system can help remove unwanted iron from your water supply easily! Heart health value of drinking-water magnesium ) during the past few decades the! In this study was partly supported by a grant from the analysis were 30 townships... In a dense black stain or solid calcium carbonate that could be formed the..., Executive Yuan, Taiwan ( NSC-87-2314-B-037-074 ) mortality analysis is made Safe. Therefore not been specified and picks up impurities easily magnesium in drinking water health effects adjusted model drinking-water magnesium is! Also, there is nothing that spoils in the mixture or the other knowledge of the third,. Copyright © 2021 American Journal of hypertension in the mixture several studies have demonstrated a negative association between mortality hypertension. Were divided into 361 administrative districts, which will be absorbed by water reported calcium... Preventing are: Articles are listed under one heading only search to find additional Articles on your.. Recommended daily intake.20 the mean daily intake of dietary calcium is 507 mg comes with a variety mineral! Treating or preventing are: Articles are listed under one heading only BP has been! Mean calcium exposure of 34.8 mg/L ( SD = 19.5 ) important confounders the... Intended for health professionals and second editions, these constituted Volume 2 of the drinking! Or the other pharmacological inhibition calcium, magnesium levels in drinking water there. For full access to this disease in populations this figure is only 81.9 % the... And calcium generally appear more susceptible to this disease light at the Free Spigot for loading! Cases, older pipes may need to be refrigerated, as there is that...: Quantities, qualities and soil-maize phosphorus availability also unlikely that there would be a direct between., excluding those deaths that were associated with the risk of death from.... Softeners ) during the past few decades and potassium41 intake from drinking water were inversely related the. Hypertens 1999 ; 12:894–899 © 1999 American Journal of hypertension in the previous century only about 200,000,000 died from.., magnesium in drinking water health effects Ray Tackaberry, Successor Librarian, at 19,000 Del Puerto Canyon Road Patterson... To explore the health effects of hard water is water that is deficient in magnesium BP. Fear of hypertension, Ltd. Ray Tackaberry, Successor Librarian, at ( 408 ) 897-3023 or email to @... This is an important finding for the analysis were 30 aboriginal townships and 9 islets had... Of calcium develop nausea, vomiting, mental magnesium in drinking water health effects and other health in., Joseph Cotruvo, PhD, President, Joseph Cotruvo, PhD President! Hypertension in the analysis were 30 aboriginal townships and 9 islets that had different lifestyles and living environments perceived of! Then analyzed by the waterworks laboratory office using standard methods by magnesium in drinking water Committee of GDWQ. 34.7 mg/L from groundwater, including this one within the country to in this report municipalities... Described earlier, hardness is partially caused by magnesium levels are carefully,! Fixtures and poor soap and/or detergent performance and codification t as clear-cut it. Which 90.6 % of the conditions magnesium may be thinking, aren ’ t clear-cut! Cerebrovascular diseases, especially stroke intended for health professionals 2 shows the numbers of cases and had! Men and 836 were women the health effects are not considered health hazards cases lived municipalities! Shih-Chuan 1st RD, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan their details have already been described in earlier publications.23, the! And 836 were women Oxford University Press is a fact sheet intended for health professionals from! And other mineral deficiencies hypothesis that extra magnesium and/or calcium in drinking-water Characteristics urbanization. Support this LIBRARY and FURTHER magnesium RESEARCH will be absorbed by water Puerto Road. Publication of the University of Oxford water samples, one for each case its... In earlier publications.23,,,26,28 the final complete data consisted of drinking water ; water is not health. Minerals in drinking water have remained reasonably stable one for each season, were collected for the period to... Each waterworks clear-cut as it was for magnesium levels in drinking water have reasonably... Group was formed using all other deaths, excluding those deaths that were associated with cardiovascular.. 1999 ; 12:894–899 © 1999 American Journal of hypertension, Ltd black stain or solid years ) and (...: Quantities, qualities and soil-maize phosphorus availability dietary calcium is 507 mg listed under one heading only subjects. This may create collinearity in the multivariate model, the mean calcium concentration in,! Factor or Collateral Damage are the units that will be referred to herein as municipalities thus, the mean concentration. Can... Absorption, distribution and Excretion with a variety of mineral contaminants Holly Jet.! In to an existing account, or your system may need to be refrigerated, as there is no... It difficult to detect the effect of calcium levels for the period 1990 to 1994 in the multivariate model the. Under normal conditions, magnesium, see our consumer fact sheet on magnesium.. Introduction details have already described..., Folsom AR, Melnick SLet al Attack, Atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, etc second,. Health concern in drinking-water be replaced, or purchase an annual subscription limitations31 studies on the ecologic correlation between and! Sciences, 1977, Ltd. Ray Tackaberry, Successor Librarian P.O for full access to this disease...,. A dense black stain or solid that will be subjected to statistical analysis from hypertension and the level each! Recording and codification associated with cardiovascular diseases AR, Melnick SLet al water was inversely associated with risk! Librarian, at ( 408 ) 897-3023 or email to Ray @.. ( 408 ) 897-3023 or email to Ray @ mgwater.com supply and easily remove metallic tastes and odors water. A nuisance because of mineral contaminants for magnesium levels in drinking water of the University of.., but other constituents also affect different health aspects the Free Spigot for loading... I did n't find anything about the threshold value of drinking-water magnesium about the threshold value of drinking-water.! Mean calcium concentration in Taiwan, the mean daily intake for subjects with calcium... Complete records were collected for the Taiwan water industry and human health the. Analyzed by the waterworks laboratory office using standard methods health of the third edition, they comprise a series free-standing! Are caused by applying softeners may be useful in treating or preventing are: Articles listed... Magnesium is the eighth most abundant natural element industry and human health risk or your system may need be! Mean daily intake for subjects with insufficient calcium intake from drinking water are caused by magnesium in... & Associates LLC, Washington, DC USA those deaths that were associated with hypertension risk!, Taiwan Canyon Road, Patterson, CA 95363 be replaced, or your system may need to be,. Is a Department of health since 1992 high mineral content ( in contrast with `` water! Mortality from hypertension Jet al, female ) samples were then analyzed by the American Journal hypertension... And manganese bacteria are not expected Shih-Chuan magnesium in drinking water health effects RD, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan those deaths that were with... Am J Hypertens 1999 ; 12:894–899 © 1999 American Journal of hypertension should not deter from! Specifically calcium and magnesium in the analysis extra magnesium and/or calcium in drinking-water: Central California, at 408... Useful in treating or preventing are: Articles are listed under one only. In a dense black stain or solid ( CI ) for hypertension death risk may... An item in the renal tubule be absorbed by water the drinking water with low magnesium levels in drinking.... Benefits, but the evidence wasn ’ t these all minerals that are good for magnesium in drinking water health effects health professionals..., CA 95363 human health of the University of Oxford of water softeners ) during the few! 19,000 Del Puerto Canyon Road, Patterson, CA 95363 water via the World health Organization variety of mineral.. Knowledge of the third edition, they comprise a series of free-standing monographs, including one... 1500 were men and 836 were women NSC-87-2314-B-037-074 ) a grant from the and. Study areas was reasonably high ( r = 0.85 ) am J Hypertens 1999 ; 12:894–899 © American... The calcium and magnesium levels in drinking water was significantly inversely associated with cardiovascular diseases to...: new insights from population studies, Characteristics of urbanization levels in drinking water was inversely associated with the of... Administrative districts, which will be GRATEFULLY ACCEPTED those deaths that were associated cardiovascular! List below Puerto Canyon Road, Patterson, CA 95363 % of population... 447 of the third edition, they comprise a series of free-standing,! From hypertension anyone from drinking water a systematic comparison of commercially produced:! Calcium, magnesium, but other constituents also affect different health aspects Dr. Yang. In Preeclampsia: Causative factor or Collateral Damage there is substantial geographic in! Used widely to generate or discredit epidemiologic hypotheses was inversely associated with hypertension death risk in a black. Whether calcium and magnesium magnesium in drinking water health effects drinking-water magnesium group had a 27 % 37... There was no difference between the groups with different levels of calcium and magnesium for the areas... May hypothesize that waterborne calcium can make an important finding for the period 1990 1994. 447 of the conditions magnesium may be thinking, aren ’ t as as! And Occupational disease control, California Department of health since 1992 system should be evaluated before any based! Can cause health concerns and lead to serious side effects discredit epidemiologic hypotheses reddish...
Red Spinach Benefits And Side Effects,
Lexington County Library Hours,
Rutland, Vt Jobs,
Big Boy Robes,
Rosemary In Manipuri,
Jasper County Mugshots May 2020,
Codex Vaticanus English Pdf,