Mortality data differences between the municipalities in this study do not appear to result from systematic differences in recording and codification. There was a significant protective dose–response effect of drinking water magnesium levels on the risk of death from hypertension (χ2 for trend = 29.05, P < .001). View More Articles Provided by Andrea Rosanoff here. Data collected included the mean levels of calcium and magnesium for the year 1990. Magnesium intake from drinking water was significantly inversely associated with hypertension death risk in a model controlling for age and gender. The municipality of residence for all cases and controls was identified from the death certificate and was assumed to be the source of the subject's calcium and magnesium exposure via drinking water. In the multivariate model, the inverse association was somewhat stronger. Universal drinking water and beverages containing moderate to high levels of magnesium (10–100 ppm) could potentially prevent 4.5 million heart disease and stroke deaths per year, worldwide. 14 pages. Low mineral intake is associated with high systolic blood pressure in the Third and Fourth National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys: Could we all be right? Mandibular-related bone metabolism in orchiectomized rats treated with sex hormones. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for the highest versus lowest quintiles of exposure was 0.63 (0.47 to 0.84). The mechanism for the blood pressure lowering effect of magnesium involves the fact that a lack of magnesium leads to a decrease in the concentration of intracellular potassium and an increase in calcium levels,37 which increases the contractility of blood vessels, as has been shown in animal experiments.38. No municipalities were excluded because of changes in water quality (eg, the use of water softeners) during the past few decades. A meta-analysis of published trials, Alcohol and hypertension: new insights from population studies, Characteristics of urbanization levels in Taiwan districts. Taichung, Taiwan Water Supply Corporation, Relationship between water hardness and coronary mortality in Taiwan, Statistical Methods in Cancer Research: The Analysis of Case-Control Studies, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Uses of ecologic analysis in epidemiological research, Misclassification and the design of environmental studies, The effect of migration on comparison of disease rates in geographic studies in the United States, Changes in the mineral composition of food as a result of cooking in hard and soft waters, Possible role of water structure in biological magnesium systems, Dahl's hypothesis that a saluretic substance may be responsible for a sustained rise in arterial pressure: its possible role in essential hypertension, Clinical correlates of the molecular and cellular actions of magnesium on the cardiovascular system, Magnesium deficiency and hypertension-correlation between magnesium deficient diets and microcirculatory changes in situ, Observational studies of salt and blood pressure, An overview of randomized trials of sodium reduction and blood pressure, Does potassium supplementation lower blood pressure? Copyright © 2021 American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd. The inferences of causality from this ecologic study are potentially subject to “ecological fallacy” (a logical flaw from making a causal inference about an individual phenomenon on the basis of group observation.” Future studies should increase the precision of the estimation of the individual's intake of calcium and magnesium, both via food and water, and control for confounding factors, especially sodium and potassium from dietary intake and alcohol consumption. They are the units that will be subjected to statistical analysis. Location: Central California, at 19,000 Del Puerto Canyon Road, Ray Tackaberry, Successor Librarian. Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with "soft water"). How to Treat Magnesium and Iron in Drinking Water. Ray Tackaberry, Successor Librarian It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. This study was partly supported by a grant from the National Science Council, Executive Yuan, Taiwan (NSC-87-2314-B-037-074). : 21.Rubenowitz E, Axelsson G, Rylander R: 35.Theophanides T, Angiboust JF, Polissiou M: 40.Cutler JA, Follmann D, Elliott Pet al. Common symptoms include diarrhea and an upset stomach. Adverse Effects. To go directly to a specific category, click on an item in the list below. This potential is calculated with 2010 global mortality figures combined with a recent quantification of water-magnesium’s inverse association with heart disease and stroke mortality. We believe that this ameliorates the migration problem. The U.S. National Academy of Sciences has estimated that a nation-wide initiative to add calcium and magnesium to soft water might reduce the annual cardiovascular death rate by 150,000 in the United States." 7.McCarron D, Morris C, Holly Jet al. Magnesium links! Note from Paul the Mg Librarian: 4.5 million deaths per annum from Mg-deficient drinking water would be 450,000,000 deaths over the next 100 years. Of the 2336 cases, 1500 were men and 836 were women. Cases had a higher rate (43.6%) of living in metropolitan municipalities than the controls (37.9%) (Table 1). This elimination of unsuitable municipalities left 322 municipalities for analysis. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. There is no evidence of adverse health effects specifically attributable to magnesium in drinking water. As was described earlier, hardness is partially caused by magnesium. Diet has been implicated as one of many factors that can influence blood pressure (BP).6 Dietary calcium is the main source of calcium intake. Nonetheless, in the modern-day world, intake of dietary magnesium is often lower than the recommended dietary amount of 6 mg/kg/day.22 For individuals at the borderline of magnesium deficiency, waterborne magnesium can make an important contribution to their total intake. In addition, iron and manganese bacteria are not known to present a health risk. These can include calcium, magnesium, manganese, and so on. In Taiwan, hypertension is the ninth leading cause of death for men and the seventh for women.1 The age-adjusted mortality rate for hypertension was 12.27 per 100,000 among men and 12.34 among women in 1995. The Yi People study, Magnesium in drinking water and death from acute myocardial infarction, Recommended dietary amounts of magnesium: Mg RDA, Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and risk of death from cerebrovascular disease, Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and risk of death from colon cancer, Calcium, magnesium, and nitrate in drinking water and gastric cancer mortality, Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and risk of death from rectal cancer, The Statistical Data of Water Quality, Taiwan. Age- and gender-adjusted calcium intake from drinking water was inversely associated with hypertension death risk. Also, magnesium competes with calcium for absorption. Drinking water comes with a variety of mineral contaminants. From the 1996 FDA Science Forum. (Dr. Rowe has linked the cardiovascular complications of space flight with magnesium deficits). For a reader-friendly overview of Magnesium, see our consumer fact sheet on Magnesium.. Introduction. Iron and manganese are not health concerns in drinking water. The levels of calcium and magnesium of that municipality were used as an indicator of exposure to those substances for an individual residing in that municipality. Because the laboratory office examines calcium and magnesium levels on a routine basis using standard methods, it was thought that the problem of analytical variability was minimal. Information on the levels of calcium and magnesium in each municipality's treated drinking water supply was obtained from the Water Quality Research Center of the Taiwan Water Supply Corporation27 to whom each waterworks is required to submit drinking water quality data including the levels of calcium and magnesium. ( Dr. Harold D. Foster , " Groundwater and Human Health," Groundwater Resources of British Columbia, Ministry of Environment, Lands, and Parks and Environment Canada, pp 6.1-6.3 (reprint), 1994. Many studies have demonstrated a negative association between blood pressure and calcium and magnesium levels. Universal drinking water and beverages containing moderate to high levels of magnesium (10–100 ppm) could potentially prevent 4.5 million heart disease and stroke deaths per year, worldwide. Tastes great! provides information on the health and organoleptic (color, taste, odor, etc.) supported the hypothesis that extra magnesium and/or calcium in drinking-water can contribute to reduced cardiovascular disease and other health benefits in populations. Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, especially stroke. Not only, calcium and magnesium, but other constituents also affect different health aspects. Chun-Yuh Yang, Hui-Fen Chiu, Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and the risk of death from hypertension, American Journal of Hypertension, Volume 12, Issue 9, September 1999, Pages 894–899, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0895-7061(99)00065-5. Both cases and controls had a mean age of 62.9 years. Taiwan is divided into 361 administrative districts, which will be referred to in this report as municipalities. By Joseph Cotruvo, PhD, President, Joseph Cotruvo & Associates LLC, Washington, DC USA. How Many Lives Did Adobe Springs Save in 2015. In addition to age and gender, the following variables were simultaneously included in the final model: calcium levels in quintiles; magnesium levels in quintiles; urbanization level of residence (rural, urban). DONATIONS/BEQUESTS TO SUPPORT THIS LIBRARY AND FURTHER MAGNESIUM RESEARCH WILL BE GRATEFULLY ACCEPTED. We need to better understand the interrelation of various water and food constituents, as well as individual risk factors, in the pathogenesis of IHD. Because it is mandatory to register death certificates at local household registration offices and as the household registration information is verified annually through a door-to-door survey, the death registration in Taiwan is very complete. Therefore, the decedent's residence, place of birth, and place of death are likely to be listed as the same municipality, although the place of birth information was not available for this data set. Iron and manganese in drinking water are not considered health hazards. Author information: (1)Division of Environmental and Occupational Disease Control, California Department of Health Services, Emeryville, USA. Water systems using groundwater as a source are concerned with water hardness, since as water moves through soil and rock it dissolves small amounts of naturally-occurring minerals and carries them into the groundwater supply.Water is a great solvent for calcium and magnesium, so if the minerals are present in the soil around a water-supply well, hard water may be delivered to homes. since 1992. One-half cup, or 4 ounces, of Magnesium Water yields 90 mg of magnesium; one-cup, 8 ounces, yields 180 mg magnesium. Licensed by the California Department of Health Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Chun-Yuh Yang, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st RD, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan. Fax: (408) 897-3028, The Magnesium Web Site was first uploaded on September 29, 1995. General Magnesium is the eighth most abundant natural element. For each death, detailed demographic information, including gender, year of birth, year of death, cause of death, place of death (municipality), and residential district (municipality) were recorded on computer tapes. A water filtration system can help remove unwanted iron from your water supply and easily remove metallic tastes and odors. A severe deficiency may cause some of the following: numbness or tingling muscle cramps low calcium or potassium levels mood changes an irregular heartbeat seizures Interest concerning the role of calcium and magnesium in human cardiovascular disease was stimulated by ecologic studies that demonstrated an inverse association between water hardness and cardiovascular death rates.2–5 The hardness of drinking water is determined largely by its content of calcium and magnesium. The WHO concluded that the magnesium in drinking water is the mineral in drinking water that’s likely to have the most beneficial effect on heart health. In the analysis, the subjects were divided into quintiles according to the levels of calcium and magnesium in their drinking water. This report examines whether calcium and magnesium in drinking water are protective against hypertension. Magnesium levels in drinking water were inversely related to the risk of death from hypertension. Search for other works by this author on: Department of Pharmacology, Kaohsiung Medical College, Relation between mortality from cardiovascular disease and treated water supplies, On the relationship between water hardness and death rate in cardiovascular disease, Mortality and hardness of local water supplies, Cardiovascular mortality in relation to radioactivity and hardness of local water supplies in the USA, Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk, Blood pressure and nutrient intake in the United States, Clinical and biochemical indicators of cardiovascular disease among men living in hard and soft water areas, Dairy products, calcium and blood pressure, Dietary alcohol, calcium, and potassium: independent and combined effects on blood pressure, Calcium intake and the relationship of dietary sodium and potassium to blood pressure, Dietary calcium and blood pressure in experimental models of hypertension: a review, Magnesium and blood pressure: review of the epidemiologic and clinical trial experience, A prospective study of nutritional factors and hypertension among U.S. women, Associations of serum and dietary magnesium with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, insulin, and carotid arterial wall thickness: the ARIC Study, Relationship of dietary sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium with blood pressure, Relationship of magnesium intake and other dietary factors to blood pressure: the Honolulu Heart Study, Relation of electrolytes to blood pressure in men. 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And Occupational disease control, California Department of health since 1992 system should be evaluated before any based! Can cause health concerns and lead to serious side effects discredit epidemiologic hypotheses reddish...
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